Project Info

Improving Quality of Wire Arc Directed Energy Deposition

Jonah Klemm-Toole

Project Goals and Description:

Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes are limited by small build volumes and low deposition rates. Wire arc directed energy deposition, which is essentially automated gas metal arc welding (GMAW), can provide the larger build volumes and deposition rates needed to manufacture large structural components for a wide range of applications. However, sub-optimal processing parameters can lead to gas porosity, lack of fusion porosity, or cracking, which can significantly decrease mechanical performance. The goal of this project is to understand how deposition mode and build strategy affect defects such as porosity and cracking so that they can be eliminated, thus improving build quality.

More Information:

Grand Challenge: Not applicable.
The use of wire arc directed energy deposition to make rockets can be found here: Controlling quality is obviously extremely important in space flight hardware

Primary Contacts:

Jonah Klemm-Toole ( Joe Kleindienst ( Sophie Hill (

Student Preparation


The student should be interested in welding or additive manufacturing. Experience with at least one of the following areas would be helpful: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), metallographic preparation, mechanical testing, finite element modeling or other computational simulations.




Depending on interest, the student can gain experience in a broad range of very useful skills for graduate school or industry. The student can work with a graduate student on wire-arc directed energy deposition process development, metallographic preparation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical testing. The student will be given flexibility to work on areas of interest.


The student will regularly meet with a graduate student in the project. Additionally, the student will participate in weekly meetings with graduate students and professor. Realistic goals will be set at the beginning of the project, and they will be continuously updated as needed. The frequent interaction with professors and graduate students will ensure all resources are being provided to ensure the student gets the most out of the project.


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